From 780—516 B.C.E.
there are an estimated 243 prophecies in the Prophets
which the rabbis in particular see the Messianic motif (design/theme)
The most distinctive feature of the prophetic books is that their Messianic predictions
generally have eschatological (concern with the final events in the history of the world or mankind) overtones: “in that day”, “behold the days will come”, “at the end of the days”, “in the day of the Lord”,“in these days”, or “in the last days”. Eusebius, the father of church history
I. The Prophets
of the Northern Kingdom, Israel
Amos 780-740 Proclaimed the “coming day of the Lord”. 5:18-20; 8:9: 9:7-15
"When that day comes”, I will raise up the fallen sukkah of David. I will close up its gaps, raise up its ruins and rebuild it as it used to be, so that Isra'el can possess what is left of Edom and of all the nations bearing my name," says ADONAI, who is doing this."The days will come," says ADONAI, "when the plowman will overtake the reaper and the one treading grapes the one sowing seed. Sweet wine will drip down the mountains, and all the hills will flow with it. vs 9:11-13
Jonah 782-753 Proclaimed overall the “love of one’s enemies”.
Death, resurrection and Life after.
Hosea 760-720 Proclaimed a “return to the Lord”. 3:4-5, “Messianic Covenant”. 2:18-20 and the “power of the resurrection”. 13:14; His branches will spread out, his beauty be like an olive tree and his fragrance like the L'vanon… 14:6
II. The Prophets
of the Southern Kingdom, Judah
Joel 860-850 Proclaimed as a “teacher of the way of righteousness”. 2:23-4:3
Isaiah 740-698 Proclaimed as the Old Testaments evangelist the Messiah’s “high priestly office, birth, majesty, humiliation, glorious exaltation, resurrection hope, the new Heaven and earth and the last judgment”. 7:14; 9:1-6; 11:1-4; 25:7-9; 26:19; 30:19-20; 42:1-3; 53; 66:22-24
The Targum (Torah translation) sees these Isaiah verses as particularly referring to the Messiah:
On that day, ADONAI's plant will be beautiful and glorious;
and the fruit of the land will be the pride and splendor of Isra'el's survivors 4:2
For all the boots of soldiers marching and every cloak rolled in blood is
destined for burning, fuel for the fire. 9:5
For in but a little while, my fury will end; and my anger will have destroyed them. 10:27
But a branch will emerge from the trunk of Yishai, a shoot will grow from his roots. 11:1
The wolf will live with the lamb; the leopard lie down with the kid; calf, young lion and
fattened lamb together, with a little child to lead them. 6
Do not rejoice, P'leshet, any of you, that the rod which struck you is broken; for out
of the snake's root will come a viper, and his offspring will be a flying fiery serpent. 14:29
Send lambs for the ruler of the land from the crags toward the desert
to the mountain of the daughter of Tziyon. 16;1
On that day, ADONAI-Tzva'ot will be a glorious crown, a brilliant
diadem for the remnant of his people. 28:5
"Here is my servant, whom I support, my chosen one, in whom I take pleasure.
I have put my Spirit on him; he will bring justice to the Goyim. 42:1
"You are my witnesses," says ADONAI, "and my servant whom I have chosen,
so that you can know and trust me and understand that I am he no god was produced
before me, nor will any be after me. 43:10
"See how my servant will succeed! He will be raised up, exalted, highly honored! 52:13
"Arise, shine [Yerushalayim], for your light has come,
the glory of ADONAI has risen over you. 60:1
Micah 737-690 Proclaimed more of the “Messianic hope”.
This is the word of ADONAI that came to Mikhah the Morashti during the days of Yotam,
Achaz and Y'chizkiyah, kings of Y'hudah, which he saw concerning Shomron and Yerushalayim:
Listen, peoples, all of you! Pay attention, earth, and everything in it! Adonai ELOHIM will witness
against you, Adonai, from his holy temple. For - look! - ADONAI is coming out of his place,
coming down to tread on the high places of the land. 1:2-3
4:1-8, 5:1; 7:7-9, 18-19
Habakkuk 640-608 Proclaimed “the righteous will live through faith effected by God;
from His faithfulness”. 2:4; 3:18-19
Zephaniah 641-610 Proclaimed “the approaching Day of the Lord and of revival”.
2:3; 3:9, 11-20
On that day, it will be said to Yerushalayim, "Do not fear, Tziyon! don't let your
hands droop down. ADONAI your God is right there with you, as a mighty savior.
He will rejoice over you and be glad, he will be silent in his love,
he will shout over you with joy. 3:16-17
Jeremiah 627-586 Proclaimed as “the prophet of the nations”.
"The days are coming," says ADONAI when I will raise a righteous Branch for David.
He will reign as king and succeed, he will do what is just and right in the land. 6 In his days
Y'hudah will be saved, Isra'el will live in safety, and the name given to him will be
ADONAI Tzidkenu [ADONAI our righteousness]. 23:5-6
Obadiah 605-586 Proclaimed the “deliverance associated with Tzion-Zion”. chapter 1,
Then the victorious will ascend Mount Tziyon to rule over Mount 'Esav,
but the kingship will belong to ADONAI. vs. 21.
III. The Prophets
Who Where Active During The Exile
Daniel 602-537 Proclaimed eschatological expectation of the Last Days.” 2:22,
34-36, 44-45; 7:9, 13-14; chapter 9
Ezekiel 593-573 Proclaimed as the “priestly prophet”. 11:17-24; chapters 33-39; 44:1-3
IV. The Prophets
Who Appeared After The Exile
Haggai 520 for 4 months Proclaimed “encouragement and salvation”. 2:4-6, 9, 19, 20-23
Zechariah 520 after Haggai-518 Proclaimed “Holiness of God.”
Listen, cohen gadol Y'hoshua, both you and your colleagues seated here before you,
because these men are a sign that I am going to bring my servant Tzemach [Sprout]. 3:8
6:12; 10:4; 12:9-10;13:6-7
Malachi 516 Proclaimed calling the people “back to the Lord God.” chapter 3
"Look! I am sending my messenger to clear the way before me; and the Lord,
whom you seek, will suddenly come to his temple. Yes, the messenger of the covenant,
in whom you take such delight - look! Here he comes," says ADONAI-Tzva'ot. 3:1
Jewish Messianic expectation is often closely bound up with the End Times last days
but particularly with how we are to understand death, resurrection, and the reality of
life after death—all of which are “ultimate issues”. The Days of Messiah!
References from The Messiah in the Old Testament,
Risto Santala, p. 146-189
How about you?
Have you received your Redeemer, the Stone whom the builders rejected?
In Him is life, light and joy and in His sacrifice is forgiveness of sin.
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